The Contexts of Human Development (1)
- Describe the 3 domains of study of human Development.
- Define cohort and discuss its influence in human
- Discuss the nature-nurture controversy.
- Describe Learning theory as it applies to Human Development.
- Summarize Information Processing Theory.
- Summarize Piaget's Cognitive theory.
- Describe Vygotsky's Socio-cultural theory.
- Summarize Ethological and Evolutionary theories.
- Discuss the Ecological Model of environmental influence
proposed by Bronfenbrenner.
Research Methods (1)
- Describe and list the advantages and disadvantages of the
following types of research:
- case study
- naturalistic observation
- laboratory observation
2. Describe the parts of an experiment:
- independent variable
- dependent variable
- experimental group
- control group
- random sample
- Discuss the importance of a representative sample.
- Compare cross-sectional, longitudinal, and cross-sequential
- Identify the abstract, hypothesis, subjects, method, and
findings in a research journal.
- Discuss the importance of empirical evidence in forming
conclusions about Human Development.
Genes Vs Environment (2)
- Identify the mechanisms of heredity and explain how sex
- Distinguish between genotype and phenotype, and discuss
the role of genes in building the person.
- Explain the polygenic and multifactoral nature of human
- Discuss the issue of gene-environment correlation,
specifically: Passive correlation; evocative correlation;
and, active correlation.
- Identify 3 methods of studying heritability .
- Identify several traits which have been demonstrated to
have significant heritability
- Discuss the reasons heritability is always an incomplete
explanation of human behavior.
Prenatal Development (3)
- Describe the significant events that occur in the
germinal, embryonic, and fetal stages of prenatal
- Describe 5 major events of brain development:
proliferation; migration; differentiation; myelination;
- Discuss the effects of nicotine, alcohol, PCBs and
rubella on the developing person.
- Discuss the problems of pre-term and low birth weight
- Summarize the sensory and motor capabilities of newborns.
Infant Physical Development (4)
- Describe brain growth and development in the first 2 years,
including changes in axons, dendrites, and myelination.
- Discuss the role of the environment in shaping brain
- Discuss the factors that influence early physical growth.
- Summarize the basic learning capacities of infancy.
- Describe typical sleeping and crying patterns in infancy.
- Discuss the ideal diet and nutritional problems in early
Infant Cognitive Development (5)
- Identify and describe each of Piagets 6 substages on
- Explain what object permanence is, how it is tested in
infants and what these tests reveal.
- Discuss the research finding on long term infant memory and
infants understanding of causal relationships.
- Describe language development during infancy and identify
its major landmarks.
- Contrast the theories of Skinner and Chomsky regarding
- Identify the characteristics of baby talk or
"motherese" and discuss its possible functions
Emotional and Social Development (6)
- Describe the basic emotions that are expressed by infants
during the first days and months.
- Describe the main developments in the emotional life
between the ages of 6 months and 2 years.
- Discuss the origins and development of temperament as an
interaction of nature and nurture, and explain the significance
of research on temperament for parents and caregivers.
- Describe the synchrony of parent-infant interaction during
the first year and discuss its significance for the developing
- Define attachment, explain how it is measured and how it is
influenced by context and temperament, and discuss the long-term
consequences of secure and insecure attachment.
- Discuss contemporary views on the role of the father in
infant psychosocial development.
Preschool Physical Development (7)
- Discuss brain growth and development and its effect on
development during the play years.
- Discuss the various influences on physical growth in early childhood
- Explain what is meant by "injury control" and
identify several factors that contribute to variation in the risk
of injury among children. Describe some measures that have
significantly reduced accidental death rates for children.
Preschool Cognitive Development (7)
- Describe Vygotskys views on cognitive development and
his concept of guided participation.
- Explain the significance of scaffolding and the zone of
proximal development is promoting cognitive development.
- Discuss preschoolers' attention.
- Summarize preschoolers' memory abilities and limitations.
- Explain the typical preschoolers theory of mind.
- Outline the sequence by which vocabulary and grammar
develop during the play years and discuss limitations in
preschool language abilities.
Preschool Social Development (8)
- Discuss the relationship between the childs
developing sense of self and social awareness and the importance
of success and positive self-evaluation.
- Discuss the emergence of self-regulation and empathy.
- Discuss the emergence of morality from the social learning and cognitive
- Describe the most effective method for disciplining a child
and the negative effects of harsh punishment.
- Summarize gender development in early childhood, including biological and
social learning factors.
- Discuss the interplay of social and biological factors that
shape gender development.
- Describe 4 styles of parenting.
- Discuss how quality of marital relationships, cultural,
ethnic and community contexts impact on the effectiveness of the
various parenting styles.
- Describe the problem of child maltreatment using Ecological Systems
Physical Development in Middle Childhood (9)
- Describe the normal growth and development during middle
childhood and account for variation among children.
- Discuss the problems - both physical and psychological - of
- Identify the major causes of obesity and the best
approached to and the best approaches to treating it.
- Describe the symptoms and possible causes of ADHD (with and
- Discuss the types of treatment available for children with
Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood (9)
- Explain middle childhood cognitive abilities in terms of
Piagets concrete operations stage.
- Discuss the limitations of Piagets theory.
- Discuss advances in selective attention, memory, and
processing speed and capacity during middle childhood.
- Discuss advances in knowledge and cognitive self-regulations during
- Define intelligence using Sternberg's and Gardner's theories.
- Describe how an IQ test relates to the concept of intelligence
- Explain how achievement and aptitude tests are used in
evaluating individual differences in cognitive growth and discuss
why the use of such tests is controversial.
- Discuss how cultural needs and standards direct cognitive
Emotional and Social Development in Middle Childhood (10)
- Describe the development of self-understanding during
middle childhood and its implication for childrens
- Discuss the importance of peer groups and the usual bases
- Discuss the causes of unpopularity in middle childhood, the
effects of unpopularity, and some things that can be done to help
- Describe the effects of divorce on children.
Physical Development in Adolescence (11)
- Describe the changes associated with puberty for girls
and boys and the typical ages for those changes.
- Describe the effects of early and late maturation for
boys and girls.
- Discuss the nutritional needs and problems of
- Describe the risk factors, symptoms and treatment for
Cognitive Development in Adolescence (11)
- Describe Formal Operational Thought.
- Describe the Information Processing view of adolescent thought.
- Evaluate the typical secondary schools ability to
meet adolescent needs and describe some changes that
would help schools meet adolescent needs more
Social Development in Adolescence (12)
- Describe several factors that contribute to a drop in
self-esteem in adolescence.
- Describe the development of identity during adolescence,
including the emergence of the possible selves.
- Describe each the 4 identity statuses.
- Describe Kohlberg's model of moral development..
- Discuss adolescent suicide, noting its prevalence,
contributing factors and warning signs.
- Describe how our understanding of death changes with age.
- Describe the typical emotional responses to dying.
- Discuss the arguments for and against the right to die.
- Describe the typical pattern of grieving and some of the variations.
Physical Aging in Adulthood
- Identify the potentially harmful effects of repeated
- Describe the relationship between certain lifestyle
factors (smoking, alcohol use, nutrition, weight, and
exercise) and health.
- Outline wear and tear and cellular accidents theories of
- Discuss the role of genetics in aging and explain what
the Hayflick limit is and how it supports the idea of a
- Differentiate between primary and secondary aging.
- Summarize the changes to the senses, skin, and reproductive
- Identify several reasons that the incidence of chronic
disease increases significantly with age, focusing on
heart disease and cancer.
- Identify lifestyle characteristics associated with the
healthy, long-lived adult.
- Discuss nutritional and exercise needs during late
adulthood and how these might be met.
- Discuss Perry's concept of adaptive cognitive and the effects of college
- Describe Shaie's cognitive stages.
- Summarize the psychometric changes in cognition in adulthood.
- Distinguish between crystallized and fluid intelligence.
- Discuss the typical changes in perceptual speed, attention, memory,
problem solving and creativity.
- Discuss the factors related to cognitive change.
- Describe the strategies and their effectiveness for reducing cognitive
- Discuss the factors that influence our selection of a mate.
- Identify Sternbergs three components of love and
discuss the pattern by which they develop in
- Identify the characteristics of happy marriages.
- Discuss the impact of children on marriage.
- Discuss typical patterns in marital satisfaction with
- Discuss the adjustment problems that accompany divorce.
- Discuss the difficulties of developing a comprehensive theory of
development for adults with reference to Erikson, Levinson and Vaillant.
- Discuss the changes that normally occur in middle
adulthood and whether this is inevitably a time of
- Describe the things that promote well-being in midlife.
- Describe the Big 5 clusters of personality traits and
discuss the reasons for their relative stability during
- Explain who typically makes significant changes in
personality during adulthood and why.
- Discuss the importance on control vs dependency for older adults.