Genetics- Part 1- Genes
Mendel was an Austrian monk who taught natural science and worked on plant breeding experiments.
He developed a basic understanding of genetics and inheritance.
It took him 2 years to select the pea plant as his subject.
He collected data for 10 years.
His sample sizes were large; he tabulated results from 28,000 pea plants.
He replicated his experiments.
He analyzed his data with statistics (probability theory).
Characteristics of Garden Peas:
Peas are easy to grow, and take little space.
They are inexpensive.
have a short generation time compared to large animals so that a large
number of offspring can be obtained in a short amount of time.
have some distinct characteristics that are easy to recognize.
These characteristics can be used when trying to determine patterns of
They are easily self-fertilized or cross fertilized.
Traits Studied by Mendel
smooth or wrinkled seeds
yellow or green seeds
purple or white flowers
inflated or constricted pods
green or yellow pods
axial or terminal flowers
tall or dwarf plants
Mendel used pure-breeding individuals in the first (P1) generation.
P1 yellow X green
F1 all yellow
F2 3/4 yellow, 1/4 green
The designation "P1" refers to the parental generation. The F (fileal) generations are those that follow the parental generation.
Mendel’s Results for 7 different crosses
|smooth X wrinkled seeds|
|yellow X green seeds|
|axial X terminal flowers|
|purple X white flowers|
|inflated X constricted pods|
|green X yellow pods|
|tall X dwarf plants|
Conclusions from Mendel's Crosses
The F1 generation showed only one character that was present in the P1. The other character reappeared in the F2 (25%).
The sex of the parent did not matter.
The traits did not blend.
Mendel concluded that the F1 plants must contain 2 discrete factors, one for each character. The character that was seen in the F1 is called dominant. The character not seen in the F1 is called recessive.
Letters Can Represent Genes
The characteristics studied by Mendel were due to single genes. On the pair of chromosomes diagrammed below, the letter "A" represents a gene for yellow seeds. The letter "a" on the homologous chromosome represents a gene for green seeds. By convention, upper case letters
are used to represent dominant genes and lower case letters are used
for recessive genes.
Because individuals are diploid,
two letters can be used to represent the genetic makeup of an
individual. In the case of seed color, the following three gene
combinations are possible: AA, Aa, and aa.
Heterozygote (also called hybrid) refers to an individual that has two different forms of the gene. Example: Aa
Homozygote refers to an individual that has two identical genes. Example: AA or aa
A hybrid is a heterozygote. Example: Aa
Meiosis, Gamete Formation
The three diagrams below show metaphase I, anaphase I and telophase I in an "Aa" individual.
As can be seen in the diagrams, an "Aa" individual can produce gametes that have "A" and gametes that have "a".
Principle of Segregation
Mendel’s principle of segregation states that paired factors (genes) separate during gamete formation (meiosis).
Because the pair of genes (Aa, AA, or aa) separate, one daughter cell
will contain one gene and the other will contain the other gene. (See
Because pairs of chromosomes separate during meiosis I, gametes are haploid, that is, they carry only one copy of each chromosome. An Aa individual therefore produces two kinds of gametes: A and a.
Below: An "AA" individual produces all "A" gametes. Similarly, an "aa" individual produces all "a" gametes.
Type of gametes produced
all gametes will contain an "A"
1/2 will contain "A" and 1/2 will contain "a"
all "a" gametes
that an "Aa" individual is crossed with another "Aa" individual. One
will produce "A" eggs and "a" eggs. The other will produce "A" sperm
and "a" sperm. What are all of the possible combinations of eggs and
sperm? A Punnett square can be used to show all of these combinations.
The Punnett square in the diagram below is used to show between two Aa individuals.
The square below is used for this cross: AA X Aa.
One half of the offspring produced by this cross will be AA, the other half will be Aa.
The cross can also be written as shown below because the AA parent can produce only one kind of gamete (all A).
A Closer look at Mendel’s Crosses (One Gene Locus)
Y = yellow y = green
P1 YY X yy
A cross between two individuals that are heterozygous for a trait
is called a monohybrid cross.
F2 The above cross is illustrated below.
The genetic makeup of P1 plants was different from that of F1 because the P1 plants were true breeding and the F1 plants were not. The genetic makeup of an individual is referred to as its genotype. Because the plants are diploid, two letters can be used to write the genotype. In this case, the genotype of the P1 plants was YY; the genotype of the F1 plants was Yy.
The characteristics of an individual are its phenotpye.
This word refers to what the individual looks like so ddjectives are
used to write the phenotype. For example, "yellow" or "tall" are
phenotypes. The yellow P1 plants looked like the F1; they had the same phenotype but different genotypes.
individual with a recessive phenotype has two recessive genes. A
dominant phenotype results from either one or two dominant genes. In
the cross above, YY or Yy are yellow; yy is green. The phenotype ratio
in the F2 is 3 yellow:1 green. The genotype ratio is 1YY:2Yy:1yy.
| Genotype || Phenotype |
|AA or Aa||Yellow|
S = smooth s = wrinkled
P1 SS X ss
Ss X Ss
F2 genotype ratio = 1:2:1 (1SS : 2Ss : 1ss)
phenotype ratio = 3:1 (3Smooth : 1 wrinkled)
F = full f = constricted
P1 FF X ff
Ff X Ff
F2 genotype ratio = 1:2:1 (1FF : 2Ff : 1ff)
phenotype ratio = 3:1 (3full: 1 constricted)
may have different forms. For example, purple flowers and white flowers
are to different forms of the gene for flower color. Each of the
different forms of a gene are alleles.
A locus (plural: loci) is the location of a gene on a chromosome. The gene for purple flowers and
the gene for white flowers are two different alleles at the same
locus. A single chromosome can have a gene for white flowers or a
gene for purple flowers but not both.
are two loci illustrated below, one is for flower color and the other
is for stem length. Flower color has five alleles and stem length has
" A" represent the allele for yellow seeds and " a" represent the
allele for green seeds. For each cross below, give the genotype of the
gametes and the expected genotypes and phenotypes in the offspring.
|Genotypes ||Phenotypes |
|AA X AA|| || || || |
|AA X Aa|| || || || |
|AA X aa|| || || || |
|Aa X Aa|| || || || |
|Aa X aa|| || || || |
|aa X aa|| || || || |
Click here to view the answers.
anemia is an abnormality of hemoglobin, the molecule that carries
oxygen in our blood. Red blood cells of affected individuals often
become distorted in shape, they then may break down or clog blood
vessels causing pain, poor circulation, jaundice, anemia, internal
hemorrhaging, low resistance, and damage to internal organs.
This condition is caused by a recessive gene.
A = normal hemoglobin
a = sickle-cell hemoglobin
AA = normal
Aa = normal (called sickle-cell trait)
aa = sickle-cell anemia
A man with sickle-cell trait marries a normal woman. What is the probability that their children will have sickle-cell trait?
If both parents have sickle-cell trait, what percentage of their children will:
have a normal phenotype?
have sickle-cell trait?
have sickle-cell anemia?
let A = purple
a = white
Is a purple flower AA or Aa?
Solution: cross it with aa
P1 A? X aa
The A? individual can produce these kinds of gametes: "A" and "?"
gametes: A, ? and a
F1 Aa and ?a
If the ?a individual is purple, then ? = A. If it is white, then ? = a.
Should There Be Fewer Recessive Alleles?
population model described above predicts that gene frequencies will
not change from one generation to the next even if there are more
There is sometimes a misconception among
students beginning to study genetics that dominant traits are more
common than recessive traits. Sometimes this is true, sometimes it is
not. For some traits, the dominant is more common; for other traits,
the recessive is more common. For example, blood type O is recessive
and is the most common type of blood. Huntington's disease (a disease
of the nervous system) is caused by a dominant gene and the normal gene
is recessive. Fortunately, most people are recessive; the dominant is
The misconception comes from the observation that in a
cross of Aa X Aa, 3/4 of the offspring will show the dominant
characteristic. However, the 3:1 ratio comes only if the parents are
both Aa. If there are many recessive genes in a population, then most
matings are likely to be aa X aa and most offspring will be aa.
nature, natural selection may favor one- either the dominant or the
recessive- and that one will become more common over time. Other forces
such as genetic drift may also cause one or the other allele to become
more common. In the absence of forces that change gene frequencies,
there is no reason to expect dominant genes to be more common.
The probability of two or more independent events occurring is equal to the product of their probabilities.
Example: What is the probability of tossing a coin two times and getting a heads both times?
The probability of getting a heads on one coin is 1/2. The probability
of getting a heads on the second coin does not depend on the outcome of
the first coin, so the multiplicative rule is used. The probability of
getting a heads on two coins is 1/2 X 1/2 = 1/4.
The probability of two or more mutually exclusive events occurring is equal to the sum of their probabilities.
What is the probability that a student will get an ?A? or a ?B? in a class if students generally earn the following grades:
A = 10% (or 0.10)
B = 35% (or 0.35)
C = 45%
D = 10%
In this example, the two outcomes (getting an "A" or getting a "B") are
mutually exclusive because you can only get one or the other. The
additive rule is used to determine the overall probability of getting
an "A" or a "B". 10% + 35% = 45% (or 0.10 + 0.35 = 0.45).
Consider Two Loci at the Same Time
that are on different chromosomes assort independently. The following
are four different metaphase I allignment patterns that are possible
for a hypothetical species with a diploid chromosome number of 6.
Suppose that letters represent the genes in pea plants indicated below.
|S = Smooth seeds ||Y = Yellow seeds |
|s = wrinkled seeds ||y = green seeds |
The alignment pattern shown in the diagram below will produce Sy and sY gametes.
The alignment pattern shown in this diagram will produce SY and sy gametes.
Both of the patterns illustrated above are possible because S and Y are located on different chromosomes.
table below shows the kinds of gametes that can be produced by several
different kinds of genotypes. Each gene locus (A and B) is on a
|AaBb||AB, Ab, aB, ab|
let A = purple, a = white
let B = smooth, b = wrinkled
The table below shows possible genotypes and phenotypes.
|Aabb||purple, wrinkled |
|AAbb||purple, wrinkled |
|aaBB||white, smooth |
|aabb||white, wrinkled |
peas, the locus for seed texture (smooth or wrinkled) and seed color
(yellow or green) are on two different chromosomes so they assort
Suppose that they are on the same
chromosome as indicated in the diagram below. Independent assortment
will not occur because the "S" gene is on the same chromosome as the
"y" gene. Similarly, the "s" gene is on the same chromosome as the "Y"
gene. Unless crossing-over occurs, "S" will always be found with a "y"
and "s" will be found if there is a "Y".
studied seven different characteristics in peas. Each of these
characteristics are on different chromosomes, so they assort
Example: Two Gene Loci
Let S = smooth, s = wrinkled
Let Y = yellow, y = green
P1 SMOOTH, YELLOW X wrinkled, green
genotypes: SSYY ssyy
gametes: SY sy
F1 SMOOTH, YELLOW X SMOOTH YELLOW
genotypes: SsYy X SsYy ? A cross between two individuals that are heterozygous for two gene loci is called a dihybrid cross.
gametes: SY, Sy, sY, sy
|SMOOTH, YELLOW ||315|
|wrinkled, green|| 32 |
TRAIT 1, TRAIT 2 X trait 1, trait 2 (upper case traits are dominant)
9 - TRAIT 1 and TRAIT 2 expressed (A-B-)
3 - TRAIT 1 expressed (A-bb)
3 - TRAIT 2 expressed (aaB-)
1 - No dominant traits expressed (all aabb)
A dihybrid cross is two monohybrid crosses
that each of the individual traits in the dihybrid cross above behaves
as a monohybrid cross, that is, they will produce a 3:1 phenotype ratio
in the offspring.
SMOOTH X wrinkled
Refer to the F2 data for the SMOOTH, YELLOW X wrinkled, green cross above.
The number of smooth offspring was 315 + 108 = 423.
The number of wrinkled was 101 + 32 = 133.
The ratio of smooth to wrinkled is therefore 423:133 or approximately 3:1.
YELLOW X green
yellow = 315 + 101 = 416
green = 108 + 32 = 140
ratio = 416:140 or approximately 3:1
can be obtained in a dihybrid cross by first calculating probabilities
for two monohybrid crosses and then combining their probabilities.
probability of round = 3/4
probability of wrinkled = 1/4
probability of yellow = 3/4
probability of green = 1/4
probability of round and yellow = 3/4 X 3/4 = 9/16
probability of round and green = 3/4 X 1/4 = 3/16
probability of wrinkled and yellow = 1/4 X 3/4 = 3/16
probability of wrinkled and green = 1/4 X 1/4 = 1/16
The following steps can be used to determine the expected number of offspring from any cross.
1. Determine the kinds of gametes that can be produced by each parent.
2. Determine all of the possible combinations of gametes that can be produced. A Punnett square may be useful for this.
you use a Punnett square, the gametes of one parent are written across
the top and the gametes of the other parent written on one side. The
number of cells in the square is therefore equal to the number of
gametes that one parent can produce multiplied by the number of gametes
that the other parent can produce.
Let T = tall, t = short
F = inflated, f = constricted
List the phenotypes produced by the following cross:
TtFf X ttFf
Step 1: List the kind of gametes produced by each parent.
TtFf can produced TF, Tf, tF and tf.
ttFf can produce tF and tf.
Step 2: Construct a Punnett square.
The Punnett square above shows that eight different genotypes are produced. The phenotype for each is listed in the table below.
|tTFF, tTFf, tTfF||tall, inflated|
|ttFF, ttFf, ttfF||short inflated|
Y = yellow R = purple
y = green r = white
What is the genotype of a plant with yellow seeds and purple flowers?
the cross below, the symbols "-" and "?" represent unknown
alleles. "-" is either "Y" or "y". "?" is either "R" or "r".
The genotype of a plant with yellow seeds and purple flowers is "Y-R?".
Cross it with yyrr to find out the "-" and "?" alleles.
Y-R? X yyrr
gametes: YR, Y?, -R, -? (parent 1) and yr (parent 2)
If the unknown alleles (- and ?) are recessive, the phenotype ratio will be 1:1:1:1.
the cases that are discussed above, blending does not occur. Flowers
are either red or white but are never pink. Seeds are either yellow or
green but not yellowish-green. In these cases, if a dominant gene is
present, it is expressed. Some genes, however are neither dominant nor
recessive and when mixed, blending occurs.
A = Red flowers A' = white flowers
A heterozygote (AA') is pink.
to this point, we have discussed two possible alleles for any gene
locus. For example, at the flower color locus, there is either
the red or the white allele (A or a). With human blood types,
there are three alleles: A, B, or O. This is referred to as multiple alleles.
I is dominant to i.
There are two forms of I: IA and IB but only one form of i.
6 possible genotypes, 4 phenotypes:
IAIA and IAi = blood type A
IBIB and IBi = blood type B
IAIB = blood type AB
i i = blood type O
with blood type A have a specific kind of carbohydrate chain on the
surface of their red blood cell. The carbohydrate chain is attached to
a membrane protein or lipid. Blood type B cells have have a different
carbohydrate chain. Type AB cells have both A and B chains. IA and IB are codominant because both phenotypes are expressed; there is no blending
Codominance is different than Incomplete dominance (blending).
Genes that affect more than one trait are called pleiotropic.
For example, people with Marfan syndrome may be tall, thin, have long legs, arms and fingers, and may be
nearsighted. Their connective tissue is defective. If unrepaired,
the connective tissue surrounding the aorta will eventually rupture and
kill the person. All of these characteristics are due to a single
Alleles at one locus prevent the expression of alleles at another locus. This interaction is referred to as epistasis.
Example: Flower color in peas
AA or Aa
BB or Bb
compound A -------> compound B -------> pigment
individual with AA or Aa genotypes will have flowers. AA or Aa
individuals could have white flowers if the individual also has a "bb"
genotype (example: AAbb). In this case, the locus for enzyme 2 prevents
the expresson of the locus for enzyme 1.
sometimes an allele is expressed differently if it is inherited from the mother than if it is inherited from the father.
Example: Huntington's disease is expressed earlier if inherited from the father.
symptoms of Huntington's disease are caused by a slow deterioration of
brain cells that begins at middle age. It is characterized by
involuntary jerking movements of the body including facial muscles and
slurred speech. Later, there is difficulty swallowing, loss of balance,
mood swings, impaired reasoning, and memory loss. The person eventually
dies, usually to pneumonia or heart failure.
A polygenic trait is due to more than one gene locus. It involves active and inactive alleles.
Active alleles function additively.
Height (tallness) in humans is polygenic but the mechanism of gene function or the number of genes involved is unknown.
Suppose that there are 3 loci with 2 alleles per locus (A, a, B, b, C, c).
Each active allele (upper case letters: A, B, or C) adds 3 inches of height.
The effect of each active allele is equal, A = B = C.
Males (aabbcc) are 5' tall.
Females (aabbcc) are 4'7".
|Aabbcc (or aaBbcc etc.)||5'3"||4'10"|
The following is a cross between two people of intermediate height.
AaBbCc X AaBbCc
If there is independent assortment, the following gametes will be produced in equal numbers:
ABC, ABc, AbC, aBC, abC, aBc, Abc, abc
Punnett square analysis:
The Punnett square above can be summarized as follows:
The frequency column in the table above can be plotted to produce the graph below.
Variability results in a bell-shaped curve (see the diagram above).
with many loci produce many categories. In the example above, 3 loci
produced 7 possible heights because a person could have anywhere from 0
to 6 active alleles. If a trait were determined by 4 loci (AABBCCDD for
example) there would be 9 possible categories because a person could
have anywhere from 0 to 8 active alleles.
in polygenic traits can result from genetics and also from the
environment. A measure of the relative contribution of genetics is
A trait with a high
heritability is determined mostly by genes. A trait with a low
heritability is determined mostly by the environment.
example, skin pigmentation (darkness) is determined by 2 or 3 pairs of
alleles, but exposure to sunlight (UV radiation) also causes the skin
to darken due to the deposition of protective pigments.
Examples of polygenic traits
performance on IQ tests
neural tube defects (spina bifida, anencephaly)